Historic, Archive Document

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A Primrose Catalog and Growing Guide Offering

Hand-Lollinated Seed ‘eransplanted Seedlings Plants

for 1951

Florence Levy Lew Levy

and Associates Growers and Hybridizers of

Barnhaven’s “Famous Lrimroses

BARNHAVEN GARDENS

GRESHAM, OREGON

AFFILIATIONS American Primrose Society FRONTIS: Nat’] Auricula and Primula Polyanthus Queen of Society of England

Spring Perennials American Genetics Society

HERE IS A brief interlude between the departure of winter and the reality of spring during which our senses are Sharpened by a rising awareness. It is a time when a keener perception of the sights, sounds, smells and feels—which collective- ly symbolize approaching spring renews the vital forces within us. We feel a promise of soft- ness in the air, sense a hint of gentleness in the winds, smell the aromatic pungence of rising sap

and dank earth, listen more attentively, watch with gather-

ing excitement as the first Primroses expand and bloom and suddenly it is spring.

Spring and Primroses have been so closely associated for so long that in some old-country villages spring was not spoken of as spring but as primrose-time. This aura of re- generation which surrounds Primroses has been translated by the French as meaning Tender and Sincere Affection, by the English as Early Youth, or Eternal Youth. In our coun- try we have no Primrose woods to search out as Izaak Wal- ton did who thought them too beautiful to be looked upon “excepting on holidays’; or gather the first sunny bunches trimmed with purple violets, and, later, the richly fragrant Cowslip heads. But Primroses, as we know them, have come to have the same meaning. They have become the gauge by which we measure the progress of our spring, and though we do not have them massed in our woods and pastures, we do have them in a glorious new beauty and diversity in our gardens and we know the same youthful joy as the genera- tions who gathered and pushed their bright bunches into-the handleless cups and broken pitchers which serve the very young.

To those who have yet to reckon their springs by their Primroses, it comes as a surprise to learn how scattered and large the family is. Primroses are commuters from the moun- tainous regions of Asia, the Middle Hast and from every country of Europe. As garden residents of this country they retain their natural inclination toward semi-shady situations, a soil kept moist by watering during the warm, dry months and by the addition of humus such as compost, leaf mold or

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old stable manure. When fairly well satisfied in these re- spects they impartially diffuse their infectious gaiety from Alaska to Georgia and from Maine to California.

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Work at Barnhaven

This year an entirely new race of Polyanthus will bloom for the first time, a particularly rugged branch of the family designed for sheer fun in the garden. In them we have delib- erately departed from the giant form to that of the intermedi- ate which in our estimation is one of the most captivating and irresistible. Color? We will not know until April just what the various crosses will bring, but we have appreciated for some months the distinct beauty of the foliage, so neat and compact, so varied in design, texture and coloring.

Our giant Polyanthus pollinated in 1950 for the current offering of seeds and transplants touched the fringe of our ideal for the first time. Each color series broke into countless clear shades and tints and it is doubtful that few, if any, would be missing if matched on the color sphere. The greatly in- creased size seemed not to rob them of their charm as it re- mained proportionate, those with florets measuring 24% inches across were carried in correspondingly bold umbels on much heavier, taller stalks. These giant Polyanthus together with the new specialty strains such as Kwan Yin and Cowich- an, the traditional Gold Lace and the Elizabethan forms known as Hose-in-Hose and Jack-in-the-Green were especial- ly admired by visitors here and at the various Primrose shows in the Northwest. Certainly they gave a great deal of pleasure to us.

In the past year we have developed methods of propaga- tion and growing which have resulted in particularly thrifty plants and transplants. The satisfaction we take in sending you these vigorously grown Primroses with their well-known hardiness, vitality and beauty is heightened by the know- ledge of the pleasure they give you.

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Hardy

Primrose Plants

for 1951 Polyanthus

Primroses (cAcaulisy

Doubles Julianas Ginderellas Miniature Lolyanthus cAuriculas cAsiatic Lrimulas

Selected in bloom and shipped from March to mid-May depending upon type. Shipped out of bloom from mid-May on (see Regional Planting Outline, page 33).

“When I sat last on this primrose bank, and looked down these meadows, I thought of them as Charles the Emperor did

of the city of Florence; that they were too pleasant to be looked on, but only on holydays.’

Izaak Walton, Complete Angler.

All of the Primrose types in this section are used for bed- ding, borders and edging, or as specimen plants in partly shaded situations; north and east exposures; light woodland Settings and all garden spots shaded from the hot afternoon sun,

Color, beauty, spring and Polyanthus

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POLY ANTHUS

N OLDEN DAYS, when men actively expressed joy in the coming of spring with revels and dancing, a mock battle between Winter and Summer was staged on May Day and it was thrust and parry with wands twined with Cowslips until Winter fell, vanquished. By May Day here in America, Polyanthus—the glo- rious offspring of the fragrant Cowslip—have been filling western and southern gardens with color for at least two months with the peak of bloom yet to

come in the colder eastern regions.

Who can say that it is this quality or that which spins the web of enchantment surrounding the Polyanthus? For many it is color, the vibrancy of the flame-reds, orange and cop- pers, the resonant crimsons, deep blues, sonorous purples, the clear tones of the pinks, rose, apricot and yellows, or the odd, seldom-seen shades. For some it is the variety of cen- tral designs, petal textures, edgings, fragrances and leaf pat- terns. For all it is an easily grown, ‘beautiful flower of early spring to which clings the romance and sentiment of tradi- tion.

Barnhaven Polyanthus develop numerous stalks 9 to 12 inches as the season advances, each stalk topped by a large cluster of individual blossoms which are rarely under, and more often over, silver dollar size. Plant groups where they can be watched from windows, under fruit trees, in secluded spots where you come upon them suddenly, or plant them boldly in semi-shaded borders and beds, or in north and east situations for perennial pleasure.

All are large plants from hand-pollinated seed. If specific shades are ordered, please name several alternates. Plants are 3/$1.30; 6/$2.50; 12/$4.50, (unless otherwise stated), plus postage, page 44. |

PASTELS—Wild rose, apple blossom, rose, peach, apricot and allied shades.

INDIAN REDS—Vermilion, scarlet, crimson, mahogany and tomato shades.

GRAND CANYON SHADES—Adobe shades, bronze, copper, tile.

HARVEST YELLOWS—Orange, gold and straw shades.

VICTORIAN SHADES—American Beauty, fuchsia, cerise and plum shades.

WINTER WHITE—Frosty white with golden centers.

AMERICAN MIXTURE—Assorted colors of the foregoing series.

MARINE BLUES—Light, medium and navy shades. 60c each, 3) pleo.

GOLD LACE—Descendants of the old traditional Polyanthus bred for the gold lacing which outlines each petal and the rich mahogany color. Always smaller flowering. 60c each.

Polyanthus florets two-thirds natural size

The following available after August Ist as Divisions, See Page 21, for prices |

KWAN YIN STRAIN—Named for the Chinese Goddess of Mercy this strain has the same classic elegance of line in shades of tomato, cherry and vermilion.

COWICHAN STRAIN—Developed from the British Colum- bian variety, Cowichan, an Indian name meaning Valley Where the Sun Shines. Intense garnet, ox blood and ame- thyst shades with distinct smoldering lustre.

DESERT SUNSET—A pastel Grand Canyon series in shades of rose-beige, apricot and tinted parchment.

SPICE SHADES—New tans and browns, cocoa and coffee shades.

ACAULIS

Nothing opened the doors and windows in London suburbs so quickly as the clear calls “All-a-blowing!” “Come buy my pretty Primroses!” cried by the costerboys and girls when the only bit of sun in a murky day was the golden Primroses bunched fresh from the country lanes and woods. No flower shares more spontaneously a light hearted merriness, none are more exquisitely colored and shaped. The sweetbriar, rose, peach, shell, yellow, white and blue shades, often sil- vered by frost, unfold from long pointed buds to large, round or star-shaped blooms which are cast up in profusion.

Large Plants for This Spring’s Bloom AMERICAN BLUES—Glorious shades of azure, medium and indigo blue. 50c each. 3/$1.40; 6/$2.60; 12/$5. SPRINGTIME MIXTURE—Pink and rose, soft yellows, white and blue shades. 3/$1.80; 6/$2.50; 12/$4.50 Medium Sized Plants which May Bloom This Spring 6/$1.50; 12/$2.75 (unless otherwise stated), plus postage.

PINK AND ROSE— Cameo, peach, sweetbriar and rose.

YELLOW —Primrose and golden yellows.

HARBINGER—Giant white stars, fall to early spring.

WHITE AND CREAM—Large, round white and ivory.

SPRINGTIME MIXTURE—AI of the above and blues.

AMERICAN BLUES—Azure, medium and indigo. 6/$1.75; 12/$3, plus postage.

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DOUBLE PRIMROSES i AVLOWAS of the garden in appearance, temperament and performance, the doubles expect those little extra attentions due the particularly lovely and romantic. They enjoy the coolest spots in the garden English gardeners often put these balle- rinas under a gooseberry bush —— where

=e t=—-— . the soil is rich in. humus and never dries out, ave te a mulch around the plants of old, strawy man- ure. Spring is the best time to plant, May the best month to divide when the clumps become large, and weevil bait should be placed under the foliage periodically throughout spring, Summer and fall.

Since the doubles are propagated by division only, some of them, like the double white, lavender and sulphur are cen- turies old. So many of the beautiful old varieties have dis- appeared—the most gorgeous of all, Madame Pompadour, a glowing ruby velvet, Rose du Barri, a pink, French Grey, like old chintz—we realize the necessity for careful distribu- tion and to encourage the private grower to care for and preserve his plants for future generations. We feel it wise to hold the double lavender and double sulphur for another year before offering again, and currently list the following four, two old and two new, all vigorous healthy plants.

BURGUNDY BEAUTY—A new, rich wine colored double of dwarf Polyanthus habit. Increases rapidly and extremely vigorous. $2.50 each.

MOONLIGHT—Light yellow Polyanthus of flawless form, vigorous habit, often herbaceous in the summer. So. each.

MARIE CROUSSE—One of the most beautiful, vigorous and floriferous, rosy-violet with petal edges laced white. A _spray-flowering type originating in France about a centu- _ry ago. $1.50 each.

DOUBLE WHITE—(Cottage White). Several centuries old, robust plants beairing a profusion of white blossoms, Acau- '. lis fashion, which turn light pink with age. $1. each.

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Fifty years it has been since a Polish woman first collect- ed P. Juliae from the deep canyons of the CauSasus, and in

those fifty years its hybrid offspring have garnished the gar- dens of the western world with live and lustrous jewels.

Cushion form Juliana

Petite, vivace, rampant—so the description of the original plant reads in the Revue Horticole for 1914-15—and so they are, the countless Julianas, Cinderellas and Miniature Poly- anthus developed from this Caucasian Primrose. They are all especially floriferous, rugged, irrepressible plants, many

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of them spreading into pools of color, all multiplying with great rapidity making long edgings and wide drifts possible within a few years.

Cushion Forms

KAY—Brilliant violet blue, bronzed foliage. A virile and com- pelling plant. $1. each.

SCHNEEKISSEN—Large, snowy flowers, very miniature foliage, creeping habit. Unchallenged in its class. (Hol- land) 75c each, 3/$2.00.

LILAC QUEEN—A clear, pure lilac long a favorite in Eng- land and now available. 60c each, 3/$1.60.

NETTIE GALE—Exquisitely tinted shell pink. Oregon orig- ination named for Mrs. Gale, Oregon wildflower authority. 75c each. :

BUNTY—tThe beautiful deep blue English Bunty available again! $1. each.

MRS. KING—Makes a beautiful clear lavender mound of bloom and, like Lilac Queen, a standing favorite in Eng- land for years. 60c each, 3/$1.60.

BLAUKISSEN—A rosy-lilac Dutch cushion. 75c each, 3/$2.

ROY AL—Beginning as a cushion, Royal later develops stalks guaranteeing a long season of violet-rose bloom. (Canada) 60c each, 3/$1.60.

PRIMULA JULIAE—The virulent claret colored, rampant species from the Caucasus, ancestor of the foregoing and following hybrids. $1. each.

Stalked Forms

MILLICENT—Ruffled, apple blossom pink flowers in full compact clusters like pink popcorn balls on wiry, black stalks. A superlative plant in every way—extremely vigor- ous, multiplies rapidly, foliage remains miniature. (Barn- haven) $2.50 each.

PAISLEY—Similar to the Irish Garryarde group, this laven- der-pink creation of Mr. W. Goddard, Victoria, B.C. is both lovely and floriferous. $1.50 each.

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LOLLIPOP—Circuses and clowns and a bright medium red miniature with a white stripe down the center of each petal. Vigorous and showy. Like Paisley, originated by Mr. Goddard and being introduced for the first time. $1.50 each.

DOROTHY—An airy primrose-yellow English favorite of Oxlip extraction. 75c each.

KINLOUGH BEAUTY—Luminous rose-pink, radiant with native Irish charm. Gorgeous in company with Kay. 75c each, 3/$2.00.

LADY GREER—A sister plant to Dorothy in old ivory dress. (England) 60c each, 3/$1.60.

DUSK Y—Silver-edged dusky rose, beautiful offspring of Kin- lough Beauty and E. R. Janes. (Canada) 75c each.

SPRINGTIME—Hesitates between pink and orchid but very pretty either way. (Oregon) 50c each.

PRIMROSE LODGE—The well-known member from Illinois, rich wine-red with an affinity for Lady Greer. 50c each, o/ $1.35.

MAGGIE ROSE—A bold-eyed, uninhibited Juliana with large and loud lavender-rose flowers. Not too classic a form but amenable. (Oregon) 60c each.

Deduct 15% on Six or More Plants of Your Selection

You may select six or more (but only one ofa kind) of the Julianas and deduct 15% from the list price. Include a few Cinderellas and Miniature Polyanthus (see page 16) in the collection if you wish. Remember to figure postage.

Deduct 20% on Twelve or More Plants of Your Selection

You may select twelve or more Julianas (but only one of a kind) and include Cinderellas and Miniature Polyanthus (page 16), if you wish, and deduct 20% from catalog price. Please include postage.

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Juliana Millicent, a stalked form of incomparable beauty and charm with frilled flowers the color of apple blossoms, classic form and tested ruggedad- ness. A limited number for release this year.

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Cinderellas and Miniature Polyanthus

Cinderellas Assorted shades 50c each; 3/$1.353 6/$2.50, plus postage.

The original Cinderellas came into existence in the quest for a yellow Crees HORE: ee BEES from .a Schnee- | CT kissen-Yellow Acaulis fF cross. Size was mid- [7 way between the two and color ranged from white, yellow, pink and orchid shades to light wine. Those offered -. here are the second * generation after back- crossing with Schnee- kissen, are more beau- tiful and varied of leaf and rosette and, from : the scattering of fall Cinderellas bloom, appear to have the same color range. In or out of flower, which is very early, they are irresistible.

Miniature Polyanthus

With the Miniature Polyanthus on the opposite page illus- trating just how beautiful this new race of Primroses can be— this specimen plant glows like rubies—the first blooming of thousands of plants this spring is awaited with impatient patience. White, scarlet, crimson, blue, bronze, gold Polyan- thus have been used as seed parents with Red Riddle and Julianas Millicent, Dorothy and Kinlough Beauty as pollen parents. Foliage shows interesting variations, stalks will ap- proximate eight inches.

Assorted shades 50c each; 3/$1.35; 6/$2.50, plus postage 16

Juliana Lady Greer, Miniature Polyanthus Red Riddle, Giant Polyanthus

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omparative sizes of stalked Julianas, Miniature and giant Polyanthus.

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TRANSPLANTED SEEDLINGS

From these vigorous transplants you will have Primroses of silver-dollar size, and over, in the choicest and newest shades in the spring of ’52. You will find, as others have, that your neighbors as well as you will be making daily morning calls to the Primrose patch to keep current with latest happen- ings. We are trying to have transplants available the year around to catch the best planting seasons for various regions (see Regional Planting Outline, page 33) and expect to sup-

Transplanted seedling approximately one-half shipping. size

ply a good many this spring from the 1950 summer sowing —those for summer, fall and winter delivery will be from the winter, 1950, sowing.

Robust, bushy-rooted stock, expert packing and special de- livery deposits the transplants at your door in garden-fresh condition. If weather is unusally hot when transplants arrive, plant in a box of wet sawdust or peat, or in the shadiest spot in the garden, keeping well watered and shaded until planting conditions become more normal. Almost always they can be planted to their permanent positions, but should be kept well

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watered and shaded until established. Try to get old stable manure and work into the top 3 or 4 inches of the soil before planting saving some for a top mulch around the transplants to feed and retain moisture.

All transplants are from hand-pollinated seed and are sold in separ- ate color series as listed, assortments made to order from these series, or a general mixture. There may be an occasional transplant not true to color series due to seeds straying from drills after sowing, but this occurs rarely.

Polyanthus

Please add 25c to the postpaid prices below to assist with Special Delivery costs. Special Delivery guarantees safe delivery.

POSTPAID PRICES WEST OF THE ROCKIES: 12/$1.65; 50/$5.50; 100/$10.

POSTPAID PRICES EAST OF THE ROCKIES: 12/$1.80; 50/$6; 100/$10.50.

GRAND CANYON SHADES—Bright copper, burnt orange, tangerine, bronze and adobe shades.

PASTELS—Apple blossom, peach, pink, rose and wild rose.

DESERT SUNSET —Salmon, peach-biege, pink tinted ecru shades.

VICTORIAN SHADES—Purple and violet, fuchsia, lavender, American Beauty, cerise and plum.

WINTER WHITE—Frosty white with golden centers.

INDIAN REDS Brilliant vermilion, scarlet and tomato shades, rich crimson and maroon.

HARVEST YELLOWS—Gold, ivory and deep orange.

SPICE SHADES—New browns and tans, ginger, coffee and cocoa shades.

AMERICAN MIXTURE—Balanced color assortments of the foregoing eight series.

New Polyanthus Strains and Marine Blues

Following prices are not postpaid, please refer to page 44 for rates. Please add 25c for Special Delivery for safe transportation unless these are to be included with other transplants for which this fee has been

paid. KWAN YIN STRAIN—Mandarin red, cherry and tomato shades on dark stalks. Distinctly beautiful. 6/$1.

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COWICHAN STRAIN—Luminous, jewel shades of ruby, garn- et and amethyst, intense and glowing with a satin sheen. Foliage often bronzed. Dark stalks. 6/$1.

HOSE-IN-HOSE—A revived Elizabethan form, but with larger flowers which are duplex, one growing from the other. Illustrated on page 38. Transplants should give al- most 100% Hose, but there may be misses.. All Hose should be increased by division, when clumps are large enough, and kept as collector’s items. 6/$1.

MARINE BLUES—In stock again and much more beautiful than before, increased size, more perfect form in shades of azure, delft, brilliant medium and sonorous navy and ultra- marine shades. $1.75 dozen.

Please include postage on above four series.

Acaulis

If ordered separately from other transplants, please add 25c for Special Delivery.

POSTPAID PRICES WEST OF THE ROCKIES: 12/$1.65; 50/$5.50; 100/$10.

POSTPAID PRICES EAST OF THE ROCKIES: 12/$1.80; 50/36; 100/$10.50.

PINK AND ROSE—Sweet briar shades, shell, peach and rose. HARBINGER—Giant white stars, late fall and early spring. WHITE AND CREAM—Follow Harbinger with large, round _ white and ivory blooms. YELLOW —Primrose and golden yellow. SPRINGTIME MIXTURE Balanced assortments of the foregoing four series with American blues added. AMERICAN BLUES—tThe incomparable blue Primroses in many gradations of Alice blue, bright cornflower shades and indigo. $1.75 dozen, plus postage page 44.

Asiatic Primula Transplants For Summer and Fall Delivery Only :

Prices and Special Delivery instruction same as for Acaulis CANDELABRAS—Select species desired from seed listings, page 40. Candelabra type of Primula illustrated page 26. BELLED PRIMULAS Species may be selected from seed

listings, page 40. Illustrated page 28. | ASIATIC MIXTURE—Candelabra and Belled Primulas and. ,

crop permitting, other Asiatic Primulas.

Please name several alternate choices when ordering Asiatics. |

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DIVISIONS OF BREEDING STOCK

The most outstanding plants of the year held for pollinat- ing purposes and available after August 1st. All divisions are strong with heavy root systems.

POLYANTHUS

Scarlet Vermilion Crimson Black Maroon Peach Pink

Rose Apricot Smoke Pink Copper Tile Bronze

Spice Shades Lavender Purple .— Cerise American Beauty White Gold Ivory Orange Desert Sunset

Your choice of the above: 55e each, 3/$1.50; 6/$2.85; 12/$5.50. Our selection of the above in balanced assortments: $4.50 a dozen, 25/$8.

SPECIALTY POLYANTHUS and MARINE BLUES

Kwan Yin Cowichan Gold Lace See page 8 for descriptions. Light Blue Medium Blue Navy Blue

Any one variety or assortments of the above, your choice: 65e each, 3/$1.80, 6/$3.50.

Polyanthus florets two-thirds natural size

NOVELTY POLYANTHUS

Jack-in-the-green, $1.50 each Hose-in-hose, $1 each Illustrated pages 34 and 388. ACAULIS

Light Pink Deep Pink Peach Yellow White Red Your choice of the above: 55e each, 3/$1.50, 6/$2.85, 12/$5.50. Our selection of the above in balanced assortments: $4.50 a dozen, 25/$8.

BLUE ACAULIS

Azure Blue Medium Blue Indigo Blue Your choice: 60c each, 3/$1.70, 6/$3.25, 12/$6.

Please include postage on all breeding stock.

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_ GARDEN AURICULAS

N ALL THE central Alps—so Reginald Farr-

\\ er says—the Auricula can be seen universal

a and abundant at the upper levels, with its

i} large mealy leaves lying out upon the gray

\} rock like fat, hoary star-fishes or massed in

the moorland turf and moraines where it grows with the amplitude of a cabbage. Like za other members of the family, the Auricula

2 ‘has roots £ as long as a Scotch sermon” and, being an alpine

plant, is happy only when sharp drainage is provided. Rock

chips or gravel worked into the soil with compost or old stable manure to add humus and food bring excellent results.

In coastal areas where sun is less intense, Auriculas do well

with little shade; in other regions plant them in various sit-

uations to find the one which gives the finest flowers. In their native Alps they are used to frequent heavy showers so will want a good water supply.

At Barnhaven we await the spring blooming of some five thousand highly-developed plants which now approach if not attain silver-dollar size blooms, velvet-textured, in the most seductive of scents and luscious colors. They are worth growing for the foliage alone which is smooth and leathery, often silver mealed.

PLANTS—Shades of pink, blue, red, leather, brown, laven- der, purple, violet and imperial yellow. 50c each, 3/$1.40; 6/$2.60; 12/$5.00.

DIVISIONS—Plants held for pollinating purposes and ready for shipment after Auz. 1st. Any of the above colors (ex- cept blue) 70c each, 3/$2.00; 6/$3.75; 12/$7.00.

Alpine Auriculas

PLANTS—Elegant form and rich shading, of a color intensity that draws the eye ever deeper into its mysteries, the Al- pine Auricula is without peer among plants. Developed from finest English show stock and grouped in four classes: burnt orange and red shades (gold centers); purple and loganberry shades (light centers). These plants are almost perfect show specimens. $1 each.

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DIVISIONS Perfect show plants held for pollinating and available after August 1st. Any of the foregoing colors.

$2.50 each. Please include postage, page 44.

Haquisitely Shaded Alpine Auricula 24

HARDY ASIATIC PRIMULAS

OST in the clouds on the roof of the world is a land incredibly beautiful and harsh and fabulously rich in the treasures of the earth. Here many of the Primulas, Rhododen- drons, Poppies, Gentians, Iris and Lilies we now grow in our gardens concentrate on the slopes and in the valleys in gigantic pat- : —. terns and for these, collectors risked their ican as s the’na natives do for gold. There is a strange belief held by the Tibetan priests that gold is a plant of which the nug- gets are the seed or root the dust and spangles are the flowers and lest the annual gold harvest decrease, gold washers are required to return to the earth all nuggets unwittingly exposed or pay the supreme penalty. Yet nuggets have reached the outside world. We are used to hearing of men risking their lives for gold, but few realize there were men so devoted to floral beauty they were will- ing to be hunted and tracked and who feared the loss of their

collections more than they did their lives.

The hardy Himalayan Primulas they brought out are easi- ly grown in the temperate zone, for though growing in a lati- tude corresponding to that of northern Mexico, altitude ranges between two and three miles above sea level. They do require more shade, more water and humic soil, seeking as they do the pine and birch forests, bamboo brakes, moist alpine meadows and stream banks with the monsoon dump- ing its water load from April to October, the period of their amazing activity in which they leaf out after dormancy, bloom prodigiously, often make an entirely new set of roots and multiply their crowns. So give them more shade than sun, a good soil kept moist throughout the spring and sum- mer and in their happy state they will self-sow their seed, perpetuating their dramatic beauty and oriental mystery in your garden.

Pee,

Candelabra Primulas

Herbaceous in late fall, reappearing in spring

Generally localized in the mountain meadows of northern Burma. southwestern China and eastern Tibet at altitudes

Candelabra type Primula for April, May and June bloom.

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/

from 8,000 to 11,000 feet. They like a rather heavy soil, more shade than sun, and a good water supply in the summer.

All Candelabras 50c each, 3/$1.40, 6/$2.60, $5..00 a dozen, plus postage.

Any one variety or your choice of assortments may be made. Best shipped from February through March and April, and during September and October.

P. AURANTIACA—Stocky and bold, its deep reddish-orange flowers circle a darkly polished stalk of one foot. From Yunnan in 1923. May-June bloom.

P. COCKBURNIANA—Another vivid dwarf, a most graceful orange- scarlet with heavily silvered stalks. From Szechuan, 1893. May.

P. BULLEYANA—A handsome plant brought from the Lichiang Snow Range in' Yunnan in 1906, strong stalks from 2 to 3 feet with 5 or more tiers of red-budded buff flowers. May and June.

P. BURMANICA—Blooms picturesquely with P. Bulleyana whose close neighbor it is in Yunnan and upper Burma. A splashy purple with yellow eye about the same height, was discovered in 1914.

P. PULVERULENTA—A magnificent giant brought out in 1905 from Szechuan with densely silvered stalks of from 2 to 3 feet with tiers of brilliant cerise-crimson flowers in late April and May.

P. PULVERULENTA BARTLEY STRAIN—The most exquisite of the Candelabras in shades of pink with either yellow or red eyes, heavi- ly silvered stalks and buds, developed in the Bartley Nurseries in England by the late G. H. Dalrymple from a pink sport of P. pul- verulenta. Mr. Dalrymple called the light-eyed “Bartley Blush” and “Bartley Pink,” and the dark-eyed ones “Hugh Dalrymple.”

SUNSET HYBRIDS—Hybrids of Primulas Bulleyana and burmanica blooming in May and June in a variety of pastel shades including rosy buff, orchid, apricot and occasionally burnt orange. Assorted shades only.

INSHRIACH HYBRIDS—Developed by Jack Drake in Scotland in a variety of pastel and brilliant shades. May and June bloom. Assorted shades only.

P. JAPONICA—One of the few Candelabras whose home is not the Himalayas. From Japan in 1861 it has been in constant culture since 1871. Its shades of pink and red are legion and known everywhere. April-May, from 2-3 feet.

P. JAPONICA POSTFORD WHITE—The only white Candelabra and a great beauty with large, pure white flowers and yellow eyes on tall stout stalks often tinged with purple. As a peacemaker among the reds, for dark corners, in the foreground of evergreens, for the all-white moonlight garden it is without equal.

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Belled Primulas

Herbaceous in late fall, reappearing in late spring Almost all of the Belled Primulas give off a delicious, heady fragrance in late May and June and bloom on stalks from one to two feet. They are native to Nepal, Sikkim and

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Fragrant Belled Primulas in the garden.

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Bhutan in northern India, and to western China and Tibet at altitudes up to 17,000 feet. Well-drained humic soil, in addi- tion to more shade than sun and plenty of water in summer.

All Belled Primulas 50c each, 3/$1.40, 6/$2.60, $5..00 a dozen, plus postage.

Any one variety or your choice of assortments may be made. Best shipped from February through March and April, and during September and October.

P. ALPICOLA var LUNA—The Moonlight Primula of Tibet discov- ered in 1924. Beautiful, large saucer-shaped bells of soft yellow dusted with creamy meal within.

P. ALPICOLA var. VIOLACEA—The violet form of the Moonlight Primula. Like all the Alpicolas the throat is beautifully mealed.

P. ALPICOLA var. ALBA—A glorious white form. All the Alpicolas are delightfully fragrant and it is said that a good nose can some- times detect differences in their scents.

P. WALTONI— Capt. H. J. Walton was able to take this Primula from the hills above Lhasa in 1904, later collected in Bhutan. Varies from dark pink to deep wine purple.

P. SIKKIMENSIS—A truly lovely Primula distributed over the entire eastern Himalayas, found in 1848 perfuming acres with its swinging yellow bells. The favorite of Sir Joseph Hooker’s discoveries.

P. SIKKIMENSIS var. HOPEANA—The very choice white and sulphur form of the above from Bhutan and adjoining Tibetan frontiers. First collected in 1915 by ‘Cooper.

P. SIKKIMENSIS var PUDIBUNDA—An extreme alpine variety of P. sikkimensis from the high passes of northern India, a beautiful yel- low dwarf.

P. SECUNDIFLORA—Collected by a French priest in 1884 and later by Prince Henri d’Orleans from western China, this reddish-purple one is evergreen.

P. FLORINDAE—tThe bright sulphur-yellow giant everyone knows has been known to reach 5 feet with age and happiness. Kingdon Ward found it in 1924 growing in a restricted area of Tibet in bogs, along, and even in, mountain streams. June-July bloom.

P. x FLORINDAE HYBRIDS—A new hybrid between Primulas Flor- indae and Waltoni which flowers in shades of soft red, cinnabar-red, orange, apricot and yellow with interesting red-stalked foliage. Avail- able as plants for the first time and kept at the same popular price for those who wish this newest Primula. Assorted shades only.

These fragrant bells backed by bold Candelabras and ferns transplanted from your woods will illuminate the shadier parts of your garden in May and June.

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Woodland Type Primulas

Masked by an elfin grace and dainty beauty, the following three from Korea and Japan are exceptionally rugged and almost drought resistant. They will do with less water but like a moist woodland type soil. They spread by stolons, mak- ing ever-widening patches. Late April-May bloom.

A spreading P. Sieboldi undisturbed for several years.

P. SIEBOLDI—One of the most beautiful of all Primulas, a large- flowered Polyanthus type, often with cut or fringed petals, ranging from white through rose to rose-lavender. Goes dormant in the sum. mer and is not seen again until the following spring. From Korea and Japan. Assorted colors only. 50c each, 3/$1.40, 6/$2.60, $5 dozen, plus postage.

P. KISOANA—Grows into a pool of lovely mauve-pink blooms on white bearded, dwarf Stalks. Cultivated in Japanese gardens for two cen- turies and is considered one of the most beautiful and rare. $1. each.

P. SAXATILIS—In 1897 this lilac-pink, heart-shaped petaled Primula was found growing in northern Korea in rock-fissures rich in humus. Fragile looking but tough. $1 each.

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Early Blooming Asiatics Four beauties who capture a very young April and who

take delight in a rather heavy, fat soil, afternoon shade and plenty of summer water.

P. ROSEA GRANDIFLORA “Delight”—The larger, more brilliantly

carmine-pink form of the type from the glacial heights of Kashmir, western Tibet and Afghanistan. 50c each.

Sparkling white and rich violet globes of P. denticulata.

P. DENTICULATA ALBA A magnificent large plant with great snow-white globes of bloom. A rare form which occurs occasionally in the eastward March along the Himalayan range. 50c each, 3/$1.40, 6/$2.60, $5 dozen.

P. DENTICULATA—The violet species of the above variety. 50c each. P. CHIONANTHA—The glorious, regal Snow Primula confined to the extreme northwestern corner of Yunnan and discovered in 1913. Large, glistening white, fragrant flowers on tall stalks, it insists on

cool, heavy soil and is reeommended for culture in the cooler coastal areas only. Best shipped in March. $1 each.

Please include postage SL

JUNE BARGAIN COUNTER Collections at reduced prices for June shipment only.

June is field clearance month in preparation for next year’s plantings. These collections are arranged to give you a wide variety of types and colors, long periods of bloom and foliage interest throughout the year. Plants are labeled as to types.

No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 Spring Prelude Spring Waltz Spring Sonata Spring Symphony Cinderellas Polyanthus Cinderellas Cinderellas Acaulis Auriculas Polyanthus Acaulis Polyanthus Candelabras Candelabras Polyanthus Belled types Auriculas Candelabras Belled types 1 doz. $3.50 1 doz. $3.50 1 doz. $3.50 25 for $6

Collections subject to stock on hand.

Please include postage, page 44.

BOXES FOR BEGINNERS

Should the wide variety of hardy garden Primroses come as a surprise, and you are in doubt as to choice, we will be glad to select our finest varieties best suited to your particuiar climate and the season of purchase. Selections are also made to give you the most for the amount sent, in fact, we have never yet been able to keep within this amount so much pleasure it is to antici- pate your enjoyment. You may, of course, make any Suggestions as to types and color preferences and the

amount you spend is entirely optional. LDL LBL LB FBI PPP P_P_ PP PP E_ I> PE P&P PP PP PP PPPS PPD PP PT

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REGIONAL PLANTING OUTLINE

The following outline is based upon information collected from gardeners successfully growing Primroses in these areas over a period of years and are meant not as set rules but as general recommendations influenced by local weath- er conditions.

Eastern, Mid-Western and Mountain States

Sow Seed: October, November, December to freeze outdoors over winter. March and April using easy artificial freezing and hot water methods as outlined in seed pamphlet. In cooler areas, fresh seed in July and August.

Plant Seedlings: April, May, June, July, Sept. early Oct.

Plants: March, April, May, June, July, Sept., early Oct.

Northern California and Bay Area

Seed: July, August (new harvest) and from September through fall, winter and spring using the quick and easy hot water or artificial freezing methods, or both.

Seedlings: From Sept. through fall and winter depending up- pon locality and with possible exception of Jan.

Plants: The year around with possible exception of January.

Southern California and Southern States

Seed: July and August (new harvest) in cooler localities.

From September throughout fall, winter and early spring

in warmer areas using easy germinating methods. Seedlings: From October throughout fall and winter depend-

ing upon local weather conditions. Plants: From October throughout fall, winter and spring months through June. Pacifie Northwest Seeds July and August (new harvest). November, Ieece miners

January to freeze outdoors during winter; February,

March and April using easy germinating methods. Seedlings: July, August, September, October and spring. Plants: From Feb. through spring, summer and fall to Nov.

Cool Greenhouse Culture Seed: Beginning September through fall and winter using quick and easy artificial freezing and hot water methods. Seedlings: Oct., Nov., Dec. for following spring bloom. Suggested temperature range: Between 40-60 degrees.

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Seeds

RESH, EASILY germinated seed, hand-pollinated from specimen plants beautiful beyond the powers of description are offered here with great pride. A pamphlet detailing simple methods for success- ful growing accompanies each order and regional recommendations for best planting seasons are on page 33. We offer only the one superlative grade of seed, always from the current harvest and and stored at cool temperaturey

ee

A hybridizing achievement is the revival of the Elizabethan Primrose form known as Jack-in-the-greez. Its beauty is often likened to that of he Moss Rose.

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Hand-Pollinated Polyanthus Seed

Those glorious silver-dollar Polyanthus ON HAND! $1 pkts.

There will be successive germinations so save the seed pans after each transplant.ng. Many blooms will reach 2% inchcs across and no seed Should be discarded.

INDIAN REDS—A sensation this year, blazing, fiery reds, often heav- ily silvered in flame, vermilion, scarlet, crimson, cherry, black ma- roon. Very large.

PASTELS—Exquisite sweet pinks in wild rose shades, peach, apple blossom, coral, rose, apricot, sometimes gold edged.

GRAND CANYON SHADES—A new brilliance to the copper, tanger- ine, tile, henna, burnt orange and tawny shades of unusual size.

HARVEST YELLOWS—Deliciously fragrant, giant yellows, orange, ivory.

VICTORIAN SHADES—Opulent in size, texture and color—purple, violet, lavender, fuchsia, American Beauty, carmine, cerise.

DESERT SUNSET—Salmon, apricot, peach-biege, rose tinted ecrus.

SPICE SHADES—Large, warm tans and browns in cocoa, ginger, coffee and burnt sugar shades.

AMERICAN MIXTURE—A blend of all the above colors.

BRILLIANT MIXTURE—A blend of all the vivid shades.

SPECIAL MIXTURES—Mixtures made to order of any of the above.

COWICHAN STRAIN—Smoldering tones of garnet, black garnet, ruby and amethyst, golden-rayed selfs of striking beauty on dark, wiry stalks.

KWAN YIN STRAIN—Pastel red shades of mandarin red, cherry and tomato.

MARINE BLUES—Magnificent large blues in azure, brilliant medium shades, ultramarine and deep navy.

WINTER WHITE—These giant frosty whites available after July Ist.

GOLD LACE—The traditional Florists Polyanthus (always medium size), exquisitely laced in gold on mahogany ground. After July Ist.

NOVELTY POLYANTHUS (On Hand)

Note illustrations pages 34 and 38. No. 1. Hose-in-hose x Hose-in-hose—From tawny, crimson, white, pink and yellow plants. 50 seeds $1. No. 2. Blue Polyanthus x Silver Edged Blue Hose-in-hose. 50 seeds $1. No. 3. Silver Lace Poly x Silver Lace Hose-in-hose. 50 seeds 50c. No. 4. Gold Lace Polyanthus x Gold Lace Hose-in-hose. 50 seeds 50c. No. 5. Jack-in-the-green x Jack-in-the-green—From tawny, red, white, pink and yellow plants. 50 seeds $1.

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Barnhaven’s Silver Dollar Polyanthus as offered in Seeds on page 35 and Transplanted Seedlings, pages 19 and 20.

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MINIATURE POLYANTHUS

A charming new miniature strain (specimen plant illustrated page 17). Germinates more slowly than the giants, and if not planted in late fall or winter to catch the freeze, use combined artificial freezing and hot water methods outlined in pamphlet.

The following crosses available after July 1st in small packets of at least 25 seeds for 50c. Miniatures in mixtures on hand.

No. 6. Yellow Cowslip x Red Riddle. (ruby red). No. %. Pink Polyanthus x Juliana Millicent. (pink). No. 8. Bronze x Juliana Dorothy (yellow).

No. 9. Crimson x Juliana Dorothy.

No. 10. Gold x Juliana Dorothy.

No. 11. Scarlet x Juliana Dorothy.

No. 12. White x Juliana Millicent.

No. 13. Rose x Juliana Dorothy.

No. 14. White x Juliana Schneekissen (white). No. 15. Juliana Dorothy x Kwan Yin.

No. 16. Juliana Dorothy x Cowichan.

No. 17. Miniature White Polyanthus x Cowichan. No. 18. Blue x Red Riddle.

No. 19. Blue x Juliana Dorothy.

No. 20. Blue x Cowichan.

No. 21. Pink x Kinlough Beauty (rose-pink).

No. 22. White x Kinlough Beauty.

No.